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For their mutual communications security, the Polish, French, and British cryptologic agencies used the Enigma machine itself. Enigma machine itself. Прекратите внедрение шифровальной машинки и немедля избавьтесь от неё. Поначалу он работал над шифровальной машинкой Хагелина, использовавшейся Итальянским военно-морским флотом. At first, he worked on the Hagelin cipher that was being used by the Italian Navy. Hagelin cipher that was being used by the Italian Navy.
В году был сотворен межведомственный комитет для рассмотрения вопросца о том, могут ли они быть изменены шифровальными машинками. In , an inter-departmental committee was formed to consider whether they could be replaced with cipher machines. С года америкосы и британцы договорились о совместной комбинированной шифровальной машине КШМ. Cipher Machine CCM. На тихоокеанском театре военных действий японская шифровальная машинка , которую америкосы окрестили «Purple», использовалась для передачи дипломатических сообщений высшего уровня.
In the Pacific theatre, a Japanese cipher machine , called "Purple" by the Americans, was used for highest-level Japanese diplomatic traffic. У германцев есть невзламываемая шифровальная машинка. The Germans have an unbreakable code machine. Хадвигер был одним из главных разрабов Швейцарской шифровальной машинки для военной связи, известной как NEMA англ. Hadwiger was one of the principal developers of a Swiss rotor machine for encrypting military communications, known as NEMA.
Я должен выкрасть у их одну шифровальную машинку. I have to steal a cipher machine from them. Наряду с бессчетными преступлениями Аламан сбежал, похитив так нужную Испании шифровальную машинку. Amongst his many crimes, Alaman fled Spain in possession of a vital cipher machine. Может быть неприемлемое содержание Показать.
Зарегайтесь, чтоб узреть больше примеров. Это просто и безвозмездно Зарегистрироваться Войти. Больше функций с бесплатным приложением Перевод голосом , функции оффлайн , синонимы , спряжение , обучающие игры.
О контекстном словаре Скачать приложение Контакты Правовые вопросцы Опции конфиденциальности. Синонимы Спряжение Reverso Corporate.
Pre-war German military planning emphasized fast, mobile forces and tactics, later known as blitzkrieg , which depend on radio communication for command and coordination. Since adversaries would likely intercept radio signals, messages had to be protected with secure encipherment. Compact and easily portable, the Enigma machine filled that need.
Around December Marian Rejewski , a Polish mathematician and cryptologist at the Polish Cipher Bureau , used the theory of permutations, and flaws in the German military-message encipherment procedures, to break message keys of the plugboard Enigma machine.
Those keys included the plugboard settings. The French passed the material to the Poles, and Rejewski used some of that material and the message traffic in September and October to solve for the unknown rotor wiring. Consequently the Polish mathematicians were able to build their own Enigma machines, dubbed " Enigma doubles ". The Polish Cipher Bureau developed techniques to defeat the plugboard and find all components of the daily key, which enabled the Cipher Bureau to read German Enigma messages starting from January Over time the German cryptographic procedures improved, and the Cipher Bureau developed techniques and designed mechanical devices to continue reading Enigma traffic.
As part of that effort, the Poles exploited quirks of the rotors, compiled catalogues, built a cyclometer invented by Rejewski to help make a catalogue with , entries, invented and produced Zygalski sheets , and built the electromechanical cryptologic bomba invented by Rejewski to search for rotor settings. In the Poles had six bomby plural of bomba , but when that year the Germans added two more rotors, ten times as many bomby would have been needed to read the traffic.
On 26 and 27 July ,  in Pyry , just south of Warsaw , the Poles initiated French and British military intelligence representatives into the Polish Enigma-decryption techniques and equipment, including Zygalski sheets and the cryptologic bomb, and promised each delegation a Polish-reconstructed Enigma the devices were soon delivered. The cryptologists, however, had been evacuated by their own superiors into Romania, at the time a Polish-allied country.
On the way, for security reasons, the Polish Cipher Bureau personnel had deliberately destroyed their records and equipment. From Romania they traveled on to France, where they resumed their cryptological work, collaborating by teletype with the British, who began work on decrypting German Enigma messages, using the Polish equipment and techniques.
Gordon Welchman , who became head of Hut 6 at Bletchley Park, has written: "Hut 6 Ultra would never have gotten off the ground if we had not learned from the Poles, in the nick of time, the details both of the German military version of the commercial Enigma machine, and of the operating procedures that were in use.
During the war, British cryptologists decrypted a vast number of messages enciphered on Enigma. The intelligence gleaned from this source, codenamed " Ultra " by the British, was a substantial aid to the Allied war effort. Like other rotor machines, the Enigma machine is a combination of mechanical and electrical subsystems. The mechanical subsystem consists of a keyboard ; a set of rotating disks called rotors arranged adjacently along a spindle ; one of various stepping components to turn at least one rotor with each key press, and a series of lamps, one for each letter.
These design features are the reason that the Enigma machine was originally referred to as the rotor-based cipher machine during its intellectual inception in An electrical pathway is a route for current to travel. By manipulating this phenomenon the Enigma machine was able to scramble messages. When a key is pressed, one or more rotors rotate on the spindle. On the sides of the rotors are a series of electrical contacts that, after rotation, line up with contacts on the other rotors or fixed wiring on either end of the spindle.
When the rotors are properly aligned, each key on the keyboard is connected to a unique electrical pathway through the series of contacts and internal wiring. Current, typically from a battery, flows through the pressed key, into the newly configured set of circuits and back out again, ultimately lighting one display lamp , which shows the output letter. For example, when encrypting a message starting ANX The operator would next press N , and then X in the same fashion, and so on.
Current flows from the battery 1 through a depressed bi-directional keyboard switch 2 to the plugboard 3. Next, it passes through the unused in this instance, so shown closed plug "A" 3 via the entry wheel 4 , through the wiring of the three Wehrmacht Enigma or four Kriegsmarine M4 and Abwehr variants installed rotors 5 , and enters the reflector 6. The reflector returns the current, via an entirely different path, back through the rotors 5 and entry wheel 4 , proceeding through plug "S" 7 connected with a cable 8 to plug "D", and another bi-directional switch 9 to light the appropriate lamp.
The diagram on the right shows how the electrical pathway changes with each key depression, which causes rotation of at least the right-hand rotor. Current passes into the set of rotors, into and back out of the reflector, and out through the rotors again. The greyed-out lines are other possible paths within each rotor; these are hard-wired from one side of each rotor to the other. The letter A encrypts differently with consecutive key presses, first to G , and then to C.
This is because the right-hand rotor steps rotates one position on each key press, sending the signal on a completely different route. Eventually other rotors step with a key press. The rotors alternatively wheels or drums , Walzen in German form the heart of an Enigma machine. Each rotor is a disc approximately 10 cm 3. The pins and contacts represent the alphabet — typically the 26 letters A—Z, as will be assumed for the rest of this description. When the rotors are mounted side by side on the spindle, the pins of one rotor rest against the plate contacts of the neighbouring rotor, forming an electrical connection.
Inside the body of the rotor, 26 wires connect each pin on one side to a contact on the other in a complex pattern. Most of the rotors are identified by Roman numerals, and each issued copy of rotor I, for instance, is wired identically to all others. The same is true for the special thin beta and gamma rotors used in the M4 naval variant. By itself, a rotor performs only a very simple type of encryption , a simple substitution cipher.
For example, the pin corresponding to the letter E might be wired to the contact for letter T on the opposite face, and so on. Each rotor can be set to one of 26 possible starting positions when placed in an Enigma machine. After insertion, a rotor can be turned to the correct position by hand, using the grooved finger-wheel which protrudes from the internal Enigma cover when closed.
In early models, the alphabet ring was fixed to the rotor disc. A later improvement was the ability to adjust the alphabet ring relative to the rotor disc. The position of the ring was known as the Ringstellung "ring setting" , and that setting was a part of the initial setup needed prior to an operating session. In modern terms it was a part of the initialization vector.
Each rotor contains one or more notches that control rotor stepping. In the military variants, the notches are located on the alphabet ring. The Army and Air Force Enigmas were used with several rotors, initially three. On 15 December , this changed to five, from which three were chosen for a given session. This variation was probably intended as a security measure, but ultimately allowed the Polish Clock Method and British Banburismus attacks. The Naval version of the Wehrmacht Enigma had always been issued with more rotors than the other services: At first six, then seven, and finally eight.
The four-rotor Naval Enigma M4 machine accommodated an extra rotor in the same space as the three-rotor version. This was accomplished by replacing the original reflector with a thinner one and by adding a thin fourth rotor. That fourth rotor was one of two types, Beta or Gamma , and never stepped, but could be manually set to any of 26 positions. One of the 26 made the machine perform identically to the three-rotor machine.
To avoid merely implementing a simple solvable substitution cipher, every key press caused one or more rotors to step by one twenty-sixth of a full rotation, before the electrical connections were made. This changed the substitution alphabet used for encryption, ensuring that the cryptographic substitution was different at each new rotor position, producing a more formidable polyalphabetic substitution cipher. The stepping mechanism varied slightly from model to model.
The right-hand rotor stepped once with each keystroke, and other rotors stepped less frequently. The advancement of a rotor other than the left-hand one was called a turnover by the British. This was achieved by a ratchet and pawl mechanism. Each rotor had a ratchet with 26 teeth and every time a key was pressed, the set of spring-loaded pawls moved forward in unison, trying to engage with a ratchet.
The alphabet ring of the rotor to the right normally prevented this. As this ring rotated with its rotor, a notch machined into it would eventually align itself with the pawl, allowing it to engage with the ratchet, and advance the rotor on its left.
The right-hand pawl, having no rotor and ring to its right, stepped its rotor with every key depression. Similarly for rotors two and three. For a two-notch rotor, the rotor to its left would turn over twice for each rotation. The position of the notch on each rotor was determined by the letter ring which could be adjusted in relation to the core containing the interconnections.
The points on the rings at which they caused the next wheel to move were as follows. The design also included a feature known as double-stepping. This occurred when each pawl aligned with both the ratchet of its rotor and the rotating notched ring of the neighbouring rotor. If a pawl engaged with a ratchet through alignment with a notch, as it moved forward it pushed against both the ratchet and the notch, advancing both rotors.
In a three-rotor machine, double-stepping affected rotor two only. If, in moving forward, the ratchet of rotor three was engaged, rotor two would move again on the subsequent keystroke, resulting in two consecutive steps. Rotor two also pushes rotor one forward after 26 steps, but since rotor one moves forward with every keystroke anyway, there is no double-stepping.
To make room for the Naval fourth rotors, the reflector was made much thinner. The fourth rotor fitted into the space made available. No other changes were made, which eased the changeover. Since there were only three pawls, the fourth rotor never stepped, but could be manually set into one of 26 possible positions.
It allowed field configuration of notches in all 26 positions. If the number of notches was a relative prime of 26 and the number of notches were different for each wheel, the stepping would be more unpredictable. Like the Umkehrwalze-D it also allowed the internal wiring to be reconfigured. The current entry wheel Eintrittswalze in German , or entry stator , connects the plugboard to the rotor assembly.
If the plugboard is not present, the entry wheel instead connects the keyboard and lampboard to the rotor assembly. It took inspired guesswork for Rejewski to penetrate the modification. The reflector connected outputs of the last rotor in pairs, redirecting current back through the rotors by a different route.
The reflector ensured that Enigma would be self-reciprocal ; thus, with two identically configured machines, a message could be encrypted on one and decrypted on the other, without the need for a bulky mechanism to switch between encryption and decryption modes.
The reflector allowed a more compact design, but it also gave Enigma the property that no letter ever encrypted to itself. This was a severe cryptological flaw that was subsequently exploited by codebreakers. In the Abwehr Enigma, the reflector stepped during encryption in a manner similar to the other wheels.
In the German Army and Air Force Enigma, the reflector was fixed and did not rotate; there were four versions. A third version, Umkehrwalze C was used briefly in , possibly by mistake, and was solved by Hut 6. The plugboard Steckerbrett in German permitted variable wiring that could be reconfigured by the operator visible on the front panel of Figure 1; some of the patch cords can be seen in the lid.
It was introduced on German Army versions in ,  and was soon adopted by the Reichsmarine German Navy. The plugboard contributed more cryptographic strength than an extra rotor, as it had trillion possible settings see below. A cable placed onto the plugboard connected letters in pairs; for example, E and Q might be a steckered pair. The effect was to swap those letters before and after the main rotor scrambling unit.
For example, when an operator pressed E , the signal was diverted to Q before entering the rotors. Up to 13 steckered pairs might be used at one time, although only 10 were normally used. Current flowed from the keyboard through the plugboard, and proceeded to the entry-rotor or Eintrittswalze. Each letter on the plugboard had two jacks. Inserting a plug disconnected the upper jack from the keyboard and the lower jack to the entry-rotor of that letter.
Other features made various Enigma machines more secure or more convenient. Some M4 Enigmas used the Schreibmax , a small printer that could print the 26 letters on a narrow paper ribbon. This eliminated the need for a second operator to read the lamps and transcribe the letters. The Schreibmax was placed on top of the Enigma machine and was connected to the lamp panel. To install the printer, the lamp cover and light bulbs had to be removed.
It improved both convenience and operational security; the printer could be installed remotely such that the signal officer operating the machine no longer had to see the decrypted plaintext. For machines equipped with the extra panel, the wooden case of the Enigma was wider and could store the extra panel. A lamp panel version could be connected afterwards, but that required, as with the Schreibmax , that the lamp panel and light bulbs be removed.
In , the Luftwaffe introduced a plugboard switch, called the Uhr clock , a small box containing a switch with 40 positions. It replaced the standard plugs. After connecting the plugs, as determined in the daily key sheet, the operator turned the switch into one of the 40 positions, each producing a different combination of plug wiring.
Most of these plug connections were, unlike the default plugs, not pair-wise. The Enigma transformation for each letter can be specified mathematically as a product of permutations. Then the encryption E can be expressed as. After each key press, the rotors turn, changing the transformation.
For example, if the right-hand rotor R is rotated n positions, the transformation becomes. Similarly, the middle and left-hand rotors can be represented as j and k rotations of M and L. The encryption transformation can then be described as. Combining three rotors from a set of five, each of the 3 rotor settings with 26 positions, and the plugboard with ten pairs of letters connected, the military Enigma has ,,,,,, different settings nearly quintillion or about 67 bits.
A German Enigma operator would be given a plaintext message to encrypt. After setting up his machine, he would type the message on the Enigma keyboard. For each letter pressed, one lamp lit indicating a different letter according to a pseudo-random substitution determined by the electrical pathways inside the machine. The letter indicated by the lamp would be recorded, typically by a second operator, as the cyphertext letter. The action of pressing a key also moved one or more rotors so that the next key press used a different electrical pathway, and thus a different substitution would occur even if the same plaintext letter were entered again.
For each key press there was rotation of at least the right hand rotor and less often the other two, resulting in a different substitution alphabet being used for every letter in the message. This process continued until the message was completed. The cyphertext recorded by the second operator would then be transmitted, usually by radio in Morse code , to an operator of another Enigma machine.
This operator would type in the cyphertext and — as long as all the settings of the deciphering machine were identical to those of the enciphering machine — for every key press the reverse substitution would occur and the plaintext message would emerge. In use, the Enigma required a list of daily key settings and auxiliary documents. In German military practice, communications were divided into separate networks, each using different settings.
These communication nets were termed keys at Bletchley Park , and were assigned code names , such as Red , Chaffinch , and Shark. Each unit operating in a network was given the same settings list for its Enigma, valid for a period of time. The procedures for German Naval Enigma were more elaborate and more secure than those in other services and employed auxiliary codebooks.
Navy codebooks were printed in red, water-soluble ink on pink paper so that they could easily be destroyed if they were endangered or if the vessel was sunk. For a message to be correctly encrypted and decrypted, both sender and receiver had to configure their Enigma in the same way; rotor selection and order, ring positions, plugboard connections and starting rotor positions must be identical.
Except for the starting positions, these settings were established beforehand, distributed in key lists and changed daily. For example, the settings for the 18th day of the month in the German Luftwaffe Enigma key list number see image were as follows:. Enigma was designed to be secure even if the rotor wiring was known to an opponent, although in practice considerable effort protected the wiring configuration. Most of the key was kept constant for a set time period, typically a day.
A different initial rotor position was used for each message, a concept similar to an initialisation vector in modern cryptography. The exact method used was termed the indicator procedure. Design weakness and operator sloppiness in these indicator procedures were two of the main weaknesses that made cracking Enigma possible. One of the earliest indicator procedures for the Enigma was cryptographically flawed and allowed Polish cryptanalysts to make the initial breaks into the plugboard Enigma.
The procedure had the operator set his machine in accordance with the secret settings that all operators on the net shared. The settings included an initial position for the rotors the Grundstellung , say, AOH. The operator turned his rotors until AOH was visible through the rotor windows. At that point, the operator chose his own arbitrary starting position for the message he would send.
An operator might select EIN , and that became the message setting for that encryption session. This was then transmitted, at which point the operator would turn the rotors to his message settings, EIN in this example, and then type the plaintext of the message.
In this example, EINEIN emerged on the lamps, so the operator would learn the message setting that the sender used to encrypt this message. The receiving operator would set his rotors to EIN , type in the rest of the ciphertext, and get the deciphered message.
This indicator scheme had two weaknesses. First, the use of a global initial position Grundstellung meant all message keys used the same polyalphabetic substitution. In later indicator procedures, the operator selected his initial position for encrypting the indicator and sent that initial position in the clear. The second problem was the repetition of the indicator, which was a serious security flaw. The message setting was encoded twice, resulting in a relation between first and fourth, second and fifth, and third and sixth character.
These security flaws enabled the Polish Cipher Bureau to break into the pre-war Enigma system as early as The early indicator procedure was subsequently described by German cryptanalysts as the "faulty indicator technique". During World War II, codebooks were only used each day to set up the rotors, their ring settings and the plugboard. Assume the result was UHL. He then set up the message key, SXT , as the start position and encrypted the message. Next, he used this SXT message setting as the start position to decrypt the message.
This way, each ground setting was different and the new procedure avoided the security flaw of double encoded message settings. This procedure was used by Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe only. The Kriegsmarine procedures on sending messages with the Enigma were far more complex and elaborate. Prior to encryption the message was encoded using the Kurzsignalheft code book.
The Kurzsignalheft contained tables to convert sentences into four-letter groups. A great many choices were included, for example, logistic matters such as refuelling and rendezvous with supply ships, positions and grid lists, harbour names, countries, weapons, weather conditions, enemy positions and ships, date and time tables. The Army Enigma machine used only the 26 alphabet characters.
Punctuation was replaced with rare character combinations. A space was omitted or replaced with an X. The X was generally used as full-stop. Some punctuation marks were different in other parts of the armed forces.
The Kriegsmarine replaced the comma with Y and the question mark with UD. The Kriegsmarine , using the four rotor Enigma, had four-character groups. Frequently used names or words were varied as much as possible. To make cryptanalysis harder, messages were limited to characters. Longer messages were divided into several parts, each using a different message key.
The character substitutions by the Enigma machine as a whole can be expressed as a string of letters with each position occupied by the character that will replace the character at the corresponding position in the alphabet. Since the operation of an Enigma machine encoding a message is a series of such configurations, each associated with a single character being encoded, a sequence of such representations can be used to represent the operation of the machine as it encodes a message.
For example, the 4th step in the encoding above can be expanded to show each of these stages using the same representation of mappings and highlighting for the encoded character:. Here the encoding begins trivially with the first "mapping" representing the keyboard which has no effect , followed by the plugboard, configured as AE. Note that this model has 4 rotors lines 1 through 4 and that the reflector line R also permutes garbles letters. The Enigma family included multiple designs.
The earliest were commercial models dating from the early s. Starting in the mids, the German military began to use Enigma, making a number of security-related changes. Various nations either adopted or adapted the design for their own cipher machines. An estimated 40, Enigma machines were constructed.
On 23 February ,  Arthur Scherbius applied for a patent for a ciphering machine that used rotors. They approached the German Navy and Foreign Office with their design, but neither agency was interested. This state is established when a machine is set to its initial configuration. Operation then produces a series of configurations each with new state. Formally, that state consists of internal elements not directly visible to the operator who can only indirectly see changes in the positions of the rotors as manifest in the rotor letters at the machine windows.
This internal state is entirely responsible for determining the mappings used by the machine to encode messages. Thes aspects of state can be used to costruct a varity of representations of the configuration of an Enigma machine. This is the only visible manifestation of configuration changes during operation. Using cfg as defined above :. The core properties of an EnigmaConfig embody a low level specification of an Enigma configuration.
Note that though it is not likely to be useful, these elements can be used to instantiate an EnigmaConfig :. Note that this is the only property of an enigma machine that changes when it is stepped see step , and the changes in the letters visible at the windows are the only visible manifestation of this change.
Note that for the plugboard and reflector, the position will always be 1 since the former cannot rotate, and the latter does not neither will be different in a new configuration generated by step :. Note that for the plugboard and reflector, this will always be 1 since the former lacks a ring, and for latter ring position is irrelevant the letter ring is not visible, and has no effect on when turnovers occur :. Thes mappings can be examined in a number of ways:.
The list of mappings for each stage of in an EnigmaConfig : The encoding performed by the Component at that point in the progress through the machine. These are arranged in processing order, beginning with the encoding performed by the plugboard, followed by the forward see Direction encoding performed by each rotor see mapping , then the reflector, followed by the reverse encodings by each rotor, and finally by the plugboard again. Note that, because plugboard mapping is established by paired exchanges of letters it is always the case that:.
The list of mappings an EnigmaConfig has performed by each stage: The encoding performed by the EnigmaConfig as a whole up to that point in the progress through the machine. These are arranged in processing order, beginning with the encoding performed by the plugboard, followed by the forward see Direction encoding performed up to each rotor see mapping , then the reflector, followed by the reverse encodings up to each rotor, and finally by the plugboard again.
Since these may be thought of as cumulative encodings by the machine, the final element of the list will be the mapping used by the machine for encoding:. The mapping used by an EnigmaConfig to encode a letter entered at the keyboard. A string representing the stat of an EnigmaConfig in a selected format see examples , optionally indicating how specified character is encoded by the configuration.
A string schematically representing an EnigmaConfig. If a valid message character is provided as a value for letter , that is indicated as input and the letter it is encoded to is highlighted. Note that as follows from Mapping the position of the marked letter at each stage is the alphabetic position of the marked letter at the previous stage.
Note that though the examples above have been wrapped in print for clarity, these functions return strings:. Step the Enigma machine by rotating the rightmost first rotor one position, and other rotors as determined by the positions of rotors in the machine, based on the positions of their components.
Stepping leaves the components and rings of a configuration unchanged, changing only positions , which is manifest in changes of the letters visible at the windows :. Note that because of the way the Enigma machine is designed, it is always the case provided that msg is all uppercase letters that:.
Print out the encoding of a message by an initial EnigmaConfig , formatted into conventional blocks of four characters. Replace any symbols for which there are standard Kriegsmarine substitutions, remove any remaining non-letter characters, and convert to uppercase.
Note This documentation is in draft form. A class representing the state of an Enigma machine, providing functionality for generating a machine configuration from a conventional specification, examining the state of a configuration, simulating the operation of a machine by stepping between states, and encoding messages.
See components. See windows. See rings. Returns: A new Enigma machine configuration created from the specification arguments. ZL" , "
«Эни́гма» (от нем. Änigma — загадка) — переносная шифровальная машина, использовавшаяся для Kozaczuk W. Enigma: how the German machine cipher was broken. ↑ Good, Michie & Timms, , p. 7 Introduction: 11 German Tunny, 11B The Tunny Cipher Machine, . enigma crypto machine. Шифровальная машина Энигма была разработана еще до Второй мировой войны и использовалась как в коммерческих целях.